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New York Guardianship Can Be Avoided by Using Advance Directives

A New York Guardianship proceeding under Article 81 of the Mental Hygiene Law (“MHL”) can be a very complex and sometimes lengthy process. The New York Probate Lawyer Blog has discussed in many posts the Guardianship process. The essence of the proceeding is a determination as to whether the alleged incapacitated person (“AIP”) is “incapacitated”. As provided in MHL 81.02 a finding of incapacity requires clear and convincing evidence that the AIP will be harmed because he cannot provide for his personal or property management needs and cannot adequately appreciate and understand the nature and consequence of his disability.

The Guardianship Court will be presented with a Petition and a Court Evaluator usually will provide the Court with a report and recommendations. A hearing will be held at which time testimony from parties and witnesses will be given and other evidence introduced. A decision and judgment issued by the Court finally determines whether a Guardian is appointed, and if so, the Court selects the Guardian and delineates the Guardianship Powers.

It is preferable, however, and if possible, for a person to prepare and finalize documents identified as advance directives that might obviate the need for a Guardianship. A Health Care Proxy is a perfect example as to advance planning whereby a person is named as an agent to make health care decisions if the principal or creator of the proxy is unable to do so. Similarly, a Power of Attorney allows a person to select other individuals to make property management decisions regarding many specified items such as real estate or business transactions or tax matters. These two documents, a Health Care Proxy and Power of Attorney, might avoid a long and costly Guardianship court case.

Another document that a New York Estate Planning Lawyer can assist with is a Living Trust. These trusts allow the creator to place all assets under the trust while maintaining full control as the Trustee over their disposition. However, provisions in the Trust can provide for a substitute Trustee if the creator becomes disabled or incapacitated. A Living Trust can also act as a substitute for a Last Will and typically provides very similar provisions for the disposition of the trust promptly upon the death of the creator.

While advance directives can be very helpful and may avoid the Guardianship process, all such documents may still be the subject of controversy and court proceedings. Just recently, Dutchess County Supreme Court Justice James D. Pagones decided a case entitled Matter of IMRE B.R. In IMRE a person had executed a power of attorney and Merrill Lynch refused to accept or honor the power. Merrill Lynch claimed that the principal might have lacked capacity to sign the power. A petition was then brought under the New York General Obligations Law Sec. 5-1510(2)(i) to compel Merrill to accept the power of attorney. After reviewing the allegations, the Court granted the petition to compel.

Estate and lifetime planning requires a consideration of a persons assets, desires and intentions and the effect these decisions may have on intended beneficiaries. The implementation of advance directives can provide an efficient and expeditious way to deal with circumstances such as incapacity and even a short-term disability. By expending the time and effort to provide these papers, the more cumbersome and lengthy Guardianship process may be avoided.


New York Trusts and Estates Attorney Jules Martin Haas, Esq. has been representing clients in New York Trusts and Estates and Guardianship matters throughout the past 30 years in New York, including Queens and Nassau Counties. If you or someone you know is involved with or has questions about a New York Estate or Guardianship matter, please contact me at (212) 355-2575 or email: jules.haas@verizon.net, for an initial consultation.

Jules Martin Haas provides his clients and members of the community with a free monthly e-newsletter which contains articles covering a variety of legal topics including estate planning, financial matters and real estate. If you wish to be placed on the e-newslist, simply e-mail me at jules.haas@verizon.net. You can cancel receiving the newsletter at anytime.

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